IUPAC: 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)pentan-1-one (4-FPD) hydrochloride

Class of drugs: Cannabinoids; Synthetic cathinones

InChI String: InChI=1S/C12H16FNO/c1-3-4-11(14-2)12(15)9-5-7-10(13)8-6- 9/h5-8,11,14H,3-4H2,1-2H3

CFR: Not Scheduled (12/2019)

CAS# Not Available

Synonyms: 4-Fluoro Pentedrone, 4-Fluoro-α-Methylamino-Valerophenone, 4-FPD

Source: Department of Homeland Security

Appearance: Tan Solid Material

Synthetic cathinones are a broad group of “designer drugs“. Biological effects of their action are similar to those caused by amphetamine or cocaine. They are marketed either as collectibles (“not suitable for human consumption”) or as “research chemicals”. Synthetic cathinones are akin to amphetamines, and the only difference between synthetic cathinones and the respective amphetamines is the presence of a carbonyl group in the β-position with respect to the amino group in cathinone derivatives.


For this reason, synthetic cathinones are called bk-amphetamines. Since cathinone is a β-keto derivative of amphetamine, it stimulates and shows sympathomimetic action upon the central nervous system. The action of cathinone and its derivatives relies mainly on inhibiting reuptake of neurotransmitters; this results in their increased concentration in the inter-synaptic space and stronger activation of cathinone-sensitive receptors. Additionally, relatively strong inhibitory actions of cathinone derivatives towards monoamine oxidase (MAO) and higher selectivity of the cathinone derivatives toward MAO-B isoenzyme have been reported.


Inhibition of the isoenzyme, normally metabolizing dopamine, prevents degradation of the important neurotransmitter. It can be assumed that synthetic cathinones show affinity towards monoamine transporters responsible for endogenous amines, such as serotonin or dopamine, by increasing their concentration in inter-synaptic space.


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4F-Pentedrone (4fpd) is classified as a novel stimulant and substituted cathinone. Also, novel stimulants have been reported to cause stimulant-like effects, similar to amphetamines, HEP. Novel stimulants have also caused adverse events, including deaths, as described in the literature. Structurally, similar compounds include pentedrone, hexedrone, and N-ethyl hexedrone. Above all, pentedrone is a Schedule I substance in the USA 4FPD is not explicitly scheduled.

New psychoactive substances (NPS) have been progressively replacing classical narcotics on the illegal drug market.
Importantly, Among most prominent compounds of this type are synthetic cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids. Because of widespread abuse of such designer drugs (“legal highs”), the associated health risks and high frequency of 4fpd and other novel drug variants constantly emerging on the market.


Health effects of various market-available synthetic cathinones can differ. Peripheral nervous system effects of cathinone derivative abusers include dilated pupils, elevated blood pressure or hyperthermia. Moreover, the psychoactive effects of these compounds include states of increased excitement, elevated assertiveness, euphoria, better concentration, anxiety, restlessness or hallucinations.

Withdrawal syndrome

Therefore, withdrawal symptoms include sleeplessness, irritability, concentration problems, depression and various psychoses. Similarly, long-term abuse of cathinone derivatives may be destructive for both nervous as well as blood vascular systems and may result in irreversible mental disorders. To clarify, literature reports and subjective accounts of cathinone derivative abusers have cited the occurrence of panic attacks. convulsions, hallucinations, aggressive behaviour, chest pain, hypothermia and many other symptoms, which are sometimes life-threatening.

In conclusion, Drug Interaction Studies  of 4fpd have revealed the following

  • Warfarin: THC and CBD increase warfarin levels(Yamaori et al 2012).
  • Alcohol: Alcohol may increase THC levels (Hartman 2015).
  • Theophylline: Smoked cannabis can decrease theophylline levels (Stout and Cimino 2014).
  • Indinavir or nelfinavir: Smoked cannabis had no effect
  • Docetaxel or irinotecan: Cannabis infusion (tea) had no effect
  • CNS depressants: Cannabis has additive CNS depressant effects with alcohol, barbiturates and benzodiazepines.


Other drugs related to 4f pentedrone

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