MDMA Crystal


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MDMA Crystal

MDMA is a synthetic substance commonly known as ecstasy, although the latter term has now been generalised to cover a wide range of other substances. The Merck chemical company originally developed it in 1912. Researchers proposed ecstasy as an aid to psychiatric counselling. However, physicists do not often use it. Researchers in Europe produce MDMA as tablets. It acts as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and has a weak hallucinogenic property more accurately described as increased sensory awareness. Nonetheless, MDMA is under international control.

Physical form of ecstasy 

The most common salt is the hydrochloride (CAS-64057-70-1) which occurs as a white or off-white powder or as crystals soluble in water. The phosphate salt is also encountered. Manufacturers produce illicit products principally as white tablets with a characteristic impression (logo), less commonly as white powders or capsules. MDMA base is a colourless oil insoluble in water.

Synthesis and precursors

Manufacturers use four principal precursors in the manufacture of MDMA and related drugs. They are safrole, isosafrole, piperonal and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (PMK). However, researchers use Safrole as starting material to synthesize the other three.  Thus, Safrole reacts with hydrobromic acid to form bromosafrole, which converts to MDMA using methylamine in the original Merck patent of 1914. Many illicit syntheses start with PMK and use either the Leuckart route or various reductive aminations including the aluminium foil method. All of these methods produce racemic MDMA. Law enforcement have listed the four precursors noted above in Table I of the United Nations 1988 Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. EU Council Regulation governs trade between the EU and third countries.

Other names

As some of the above names suggest, MDMA is a derivative of amphetamine and a member of the phenethylamine family. MDA, MDEA  and MBDB are homologous compounds with broadly similar effects but have proven less popular. Scientists have subsumed these chemicals and many other more distant relatives of MDMA by the generic term ecstasy. Street terms for MDMA include Adam and XTC, but often reflect the imprinted logo, e.g. Mitsubishis, Love Doves and many others.

Additional information


3.5g, 7g, 14g, 28g


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